Ananas comosus L


It is a herbaceous, perennial and monocotyledonous that reaches 1 to 2 m in height. Pineapple’s radicular system is highly superficial. Usually, its roots are located among the first 15 cm above the ground; however, they might go inwards 60 cm or more. Stem is short and wide of 20 to 25 cm long; 2.3 to 3.5 cm wide at the base and 5.5 to 6.5 cm at the upper part. At the apex, it is provided of meristematic tissue which gives origin to the leaves during the vegetative phase and during blooming season to the inflorescence peduncle. The stem is covered with lanceolate wrapping leaves, which are spirally arranged. There are between 70 and 80 leaves per plant. Buds formed in leaves axils produce lateral shoots called slips, suckers, or ratoons. These shoots are used as planting stock for propagating the next crop. Leaves are large, narrow, fibrous, rosette-like, grooved, inserted into the stem. The margins may be with or without spines depending on the kind of pineapple it is. The shape and length of leaves depend on the position of the plant. The leave is smooth above and with longitudinal linear grooves beneath, where the stomatas are found. The grooves have trichomes forming a silverish-white serosity.

The fruit comes to be a raceme-like inflorescence with each of the fruit or fruitlets originated from the development of a whole trimerous flower, located at the axil of a bract and provided by three fleshy sepals, three petals and six stamens displaced in two different sets, and a pistil with a tricarpelar ovary and three stigmas. The skin is formed by the connection of the bracts, sepals and the tissue of ovaries that produce fruitlets. The edible part of the fruit is the succulent pulp, composed by the walls of the fruitlets bracts and by the parenchymatose tissue that connects them with the external side of the skin and the core. It belongs to the Bromeliaceae family.

It is original from South America, particularly from Brazil. However, nowadays it is cultivated in many warm weather countries. Commercial pineapple (Ananas comosus) is original of tropical and sub-tropical South Africa. Its natural season is winter in the northern hemisphere, which comes to be the summer in the southern hemisphere, where most part of the pineapple production is made. The maturation of the first harvest takes place between the 18 and 24 months following the plantation. The pineapple It will not ripen once harvested. If it is harvested before ripen in order to facilitate its transportation, the result will be an acid and poor in nutrients fruit.

Part used

Fruits and stems are used (stems have a higher concentration of bromelain).


Internal use
  • Digestive disorders: dyspepsia, hyposecretive, functional dyspepsia by gastric secreting deficiency (hypochlorhydria), exocrine pancreatic deficiency, irritable colon, aerophagia and flatulence; heavy digestion with discomfort and bloating after meals, digestive atony, chronic gastritis, diarrheas, constipation, intestinal worms and hemorrhoids.
  • Intestinal disorders after-effects: amebiasis, parasitosis, etc.
  • Osteoarticular disorders: rheumatism, arthralgia, arthritis, gout, etc.
  • Post-operatory and post-traumatic edema.
  • Bronchitis, nasal and paranasal sinusitis, emphysema, asthma, mucoviscidosis.
  • Cellulite, obesity.
  • Traumatology: contusions, sprains, fracture, luxation.
  • Tooth inflammation: stomatitis, dental abscesses, tooth extraction
  • Others: urolithiasis, atherosclerosis.

External use

  • Skin lesions, wounds cleaning, burns and trophic ulcers.
  • After a surgery, pineapple extract might help to reduce the production of unwanted adherences, apart from the capacity to reduce edemas. Once the inflammation is lessened, the pain decreases. 
  • Ulcerous pharyngitis (gargles).


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